While the West was awash with philosophies like rationalism and atheism, Dostoevsky put forth a compelling rebuttal against these ideologies. Dostoevsky believed in the Russian Orthodox Church and its role in shaping the morality of society. Dostoevsky juxtaposes these two philosophies in his characters — Ivan Fyodorovich Karamazov and Aloysha, along with Elder Zosima. The fight between religious faith and skepticism is the major intellectual issue of ‘The Brothers Karamazov.’
The primary characters show how these two places lead to various types of conduct. Faith in the story refers to Zosima and Alyosha’s positive, assenting conviction in God, which leads to active love of mankind, kindness, forgiveness, and a devotion to goodness. Doubt refers to the kind of logical skepticism that Ivan Karamazov employs, which leads to a rejection of God, a rejection of traditional morality, a coldness toward people, and a paralyzing inner despair in the pursuit of the truth via the logical study of facts. Dostoevsky does not objectively portray these viewpoints. He actively supports faith and exemplifies it.
The Philosophy of Ivan Karamazov
Ivan Fyodorovich represented the rationalist movement sweeping the West. Ivan was an intellectual and a fierce believer in the nonexistence of any deity. Ivan believed that the presence of suffering refuted the existence of any deity. “What kind of God would permit such suffering?” he noted in one of the passages. Ivan likely also represented the growing discontent among Russians of the 19th century who were disillusioned from the pain and suffering sustained in that era. Dostoevsky himself grew up in a hospital where his dad was a charity doctor. At an early age, Dostoevsky witnessed horrors that no child at his age should ever witness.
This sort of experience could lead one down a path of cynicism, as Dostoevsky demonstrated with one of the chapters in the book titled ‘The Grand Inquisitor ’. In this subplot, Dostoevsky satirizes the return of Jesus and how that would play out. In this story, Jesus returns and meets with the leader of the Spanish Inquisition. Jesus admonishes him for using violence and coercion to spread the gospel of Christ to unbelievers. The leader of the Spanish Inquisition responds by saying that Jesus is too naive, pure, and innocent, and his methods wouldn’t work today. To the Spanish Inquisitor, people only respect force and violence. The Spanish Inquisitor also scoffed at the idea of free will, saying it was a curse on mankind — a curse Jesus was responsible for. This story in the book was formulated and told by Ivan. His cynicism about the world was captured succinctly in this story.
Alexei Fyodorovich Karamazov (Aloysha)
As a counterbalancing force, Aloysha and his mentor, Father Zosima, were the characters representing the traditional way of life and the belief in God. Aloysha was portrayed as the most loved character. His innocence about the world paralleled that of Jesus in the Grand Inquisitor story. Aloysha was a firm believer in the gospel of Christ, and his conversations with many of the characters like Ivan, Grushenka, and Ilyusha, became an important aspect of the story.
Aloysha was mentored under the tutelage of Elder Zosima. Father Zosima served in a monastery and was revered by members of his community. Whenever a problem arose, Father Zosima was the first person people looked to for a solution. He, along with Aloysha, had many discussions with Ivan. Ivan believed that in a godless society, everything is permissible. This belief was a point of contention for Aloysha and Father Zosima.
Zosima said the following of Ivan:
But the martyr likes sometimes to divert himself with his despair, as it was driven to it by despair itself. Meanwhile … you divert yourself with magazine articles, and discussions in society, though you don’t believe your arguments, and with an aching heart mock at them inwardly… That question you have not answered, and it is your great grief, for it clamors for an answer.
The Significance of Freewill
Freedom is also a prominent theme in this volume. Following the logic of Ivan, — in the absence of a God, everything is permissible — nothing can be categorized as wrong thus, we are free to do whatever we please. This subject drives much of the plot, particularly when noting that it was Ivan’s brother, Pavel Smerdyakov, who took this tenet to its logical conclusion in the patricide of Fyodor Pavlovich Karamazov. Dostoevsky believed this unfettered form of freedom was detrimental to society at large. He believed a society rooted in tradition was best.
This belief was espoused in the outcome of the various characters in this book. For one, Ivan became insane due to his teachings to Pavel Smerdyakov — his alleged half-brother. Dostoevsky made the case that the obsessive questioning of everything and over-intellectualization was bad for the psyche of a human being. Much like Jesus in the Grand Inquisitor story, Dostoevsky opts for a childlike world view. “Ignorance is truly bliss.” This childlike disposition was embodied best by Alexei Fyodorovich Karamazov (Alyosha). He was the story’s protagonist, and his character arc was made to be Dostoevsky’s ideal version of an individual.
The Role of the Patriarchy in ‘The Brothers Karamazov‘
There is also a noticeable absence of female characters in this book, outside of Grushenka (Dmitri’s mistress) and Katerina Ivanovna (Dmitri’s fiancee). Perhaps Dostoevsky felt a female sibling would have balanced out the family dynamic, and the Karamazovs’ wouldn’t be such a dysfunctional family. There is also the patriarchal angle, as the Russian Orthodoxy believed in the headship of the man. However, this is a minor detail relative to the book’s import.
Summary of Dostoevsky’s Philosophy
Dostoevsky was well-versed in two fundamental philosophies: Orthodox Christianity and Utopian Socialism. Each had its own distinct and highly calibrated understanding and reason for suffering, as well as its remedy. An assessment of his works, on the other hand, casts questions on whether Dostoevsky’s ideology was ever properly implemented. His works scream loudly and fiercely against the ideals and principles claimed by Socialism; they shout out loudly and passionately against the doctrines and ideas of Socialism. He did not, however, accept all aspects of Russian Orthodox Christianity. Within his works, Dostoevsky underlined the relevance of humanist values and the social application of Christian love. In contrast to conventional Orthodoxy, he did highlight that misery is a part of life.
What was the message behind ‘The Brothers Karamazov’?
The novel makes a strong case for people having free choice, whether they want it or not. That is, everyone has the freedom to believe in God or not, to accept or reject morals, and to pursue good or evil. The condition of free will may appear to be a benefit, securing each individual’s spiritual independence and assuring that no outside force may dictate the individual’s faith choices. However, Dostoevsky portrays free will as a misfortune throughout ‘The Brothers Karamazov‘, especially for those characters who choose to disbelieve God’s existence.
What makes ‘The Brothers Karamazov‘ so compelling?
It investigates human beings’ inability to use reason to guide their lives and suggests that without immense humility and faith, we are at the mercy of our baser instincts — a pretty provocative idea in a world where everyone narcissistically believes they are in charge of their own lives and can do anything they want if they “put their mind to it.”
What is the purpose behind The Grand Inquisitor story?
Ivan’s view of the limitations of any attempts to legitimize religious faith in our imperfect reality is The Grand Inquisitor. Ivan believes that religion can only be foolish, weak goodness, or submission to evil. He tries to take that train of thinking to its logical conclusion, to the point where all truths become travesties. Goodness only succeeds in causing misery, while evil becomes merciful.
What is the relevance of ‘The Brothers Karamazov‘?
The core contrast between the life of active love espoused by the iconic monk, Zossima, and the issue of evil — given what may be its final articulation in all literature in Ivan Karamazov’s fever-dream of the Grand Inquisitor — is both thought-provoking and tragic.